Water Source Types
Individual wells - A well associated with an individual water supply system. It is used to supply water for the domestic needs of an individual residence. Any water well is an artificial excavation constructed by any method for the purpose of extracting water from the underground.
Shared wells(up to 4 connections) - A well that supplies water to more than one property but only up to four connections. The four connections may be four dwelling units on the same parcel. Another alternative is a dwelling unit per parcel on parcels that are either contiguous with one another or are contiguous with the parcel on which the water source is located.
Agricultural wells - A well supply used specifically for irrigation or other agricultural purposes with no possibility for human consumption, including “stock wells”. Agricultural wells equipped with chemical feeder devices for fertilizers, pesticides or other nonpotable water treatment must be furnished with an approved backflow prevention assembly or a sufficient air gap to insure that a cross-connection with the well does not exist.
Geothermal wells - A well that uses hot water or steam, heated from the natural heat of the earth. It is installed for the purpose of extracting water for heating or cooling. It may be used for space heating, aquaculture, snow melting, food processing, dehydration, and hot tubs and spas. Geothermal heat exchange wells are also known as ground source heat pump wells.
Monitoring wells -Ground water monitoring wells are principally used for observing groundwater levels and flow conditions, obtaining samples for determining groundwater quality, and for evaluating hydraulic properties of water bearing strata. Monitoring wells, along with other types of wells, can provide a pathway for the movement of poor-quality water, pollutants, and contaminants. Because monitoring wells are often purposely located in areas affected by pollutants and contaminants, they pose a threat to ground water quality if they are not properly constructed, altered, maintained, and destroyed. Monitoring wells are also known as observation wells.
Creeks - A creek is a small to medium sized stream that can be used as a water supply. Water diversions from creeks are only legal if you have a Riparian Right, an Appropriative Water Right permit, or a Small Domestic Registration. A Riparian Right is limited to parcels straddling or adjacent to creeks. Diverted water must be used on the parcel, and storage of water beyond 30 days requires a water right permit. With an Appropriative Water Right, the land does not need to be next to a stream, and this type of right does not limit use to just the parcel containing the right and it allows water to be stored over 30 days. There are many considerations with stream diversions and interested individuals are encouraged to seek additional information. Water from creek water sources may only supply for one property and cannot have more than one connection.
Springs - A spring is a place where groundwater surfaces naturally and can be used as a water supply. If springs are being considered as a water supply they need to be selected with care, developed properly and tested periodically for contamination. The yield of available water from springs may vary with time of year and rainfall. The water from springs may be contaminated since the water feeding them typically flows through the ground for only a short distance, limiting the amount of natural filtering that can occur. Springs may not be a good choice for a water supply if the area uphill where the water collects is used for industry, agriculture, or other potential sources of pollution. Water from springs may be shared up to four connections.